What Are FireFlies?
Fireflies also known as lightning bugs or glow worms they are one of the most interesting insects in the world. Fireflies have an amazing ability to produce blinking light from their body. These species can grow up to 2.5 (centimeters) in length.
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Now, you might be wondering what do fireflies eat, this question is the first thing that comes to mind when you see a firefly glowing at night. Fireflies can emit light through their body in the abdomens with the help of a process known as bioluminescence.
Similarly, the name glow worm is used for the firefly larvae these species do not have wings but can produce bioluminescent light like fireflies. The only major difference between fireflies and glow worms is of the wings.
What do Fireflies Eat?
Fireflies are like any other insect species are in a larvae stage when they are born. In the larva stage every firefly is completely carnivorous they like to eat other insects such as snails and worms.
When they grow into a beetle they adopt changes in their diet depending upon the species of firefly. Some species of fireflies like to eat the nectar or pollen of the flower these eating habits are different in every species of fireflies.
Some fireflies do not eat anything during their complete lifespan. The reason behind this is the short lifespan of a firefly. They live for only a few months in adult stage and a major part of their life is spent searching for a mating partner.
Fireflies are known to hunt their prey with their bioluminescence glowing light which attracts other insects and they get eaten by fireflies. Besides hunting fireflies like to eat pollen and nectar of the flower in the forest.
How Do Fireflies Hunt?
Female fireflies of the insect group (Genus Photuris) also known as “femme fatale” are famous for eating the male photinus fireflies.
Female genus photuris fireflies have a unique ability to lure in the male photinus firefly by showcasing their glowing patterns which attracts male photinus and comes close for mating but instead become the prey of the female firefly.
How Do FireFlies Produce Light?
Fireflies body contains certain chemicals in which results in a reaction through which they are able to produce the glowing light.
The process basically involves chemicals such as adenosine triphosphate along with calcium and luciferin present in a bioluminescent chemical called luciferase.
All chemicals when gets mixed with oxygen causes a chemical reaction resulting in the production of light in the fireflies body.
Firefly’s light production does not generate any heat because if heat is produced the organs of a firefly would not survive the light-producing process.
The pattern of glowing light in the firefly body is controlled by the nervous system. Bioluminescence is also used as defence mechanism by the firefly to give warming signals to other predators that eating them will be poisonous and even bad in taste.
Lifecycle of Firefly
Firefly’s life starts with an egg from which they turn into larvae also known as glow worms. The larvae can survive for 1 or 2 years by staying underground in the second stage pupa can live for 3 weeks and adult firefly 3 to 4 weeks they only live until they can mate and produce eggs.
How do Fireflies Survive from Predators?
These species start glowing from larvae but the glow signals in this stage are warning signals to predators. Fireflies use blood for defence process known as “Reflex Bleeding” in the technique drops of blood are shed in the predator’s mouth.
The blood consists of certain chemicals which produce a very unpleasant taste for its predators. The glowing light pattern is considered as a warning signal to other predators to not eat the larvae.
The preventive measure helps the fireflies in surviving in the beginning stage of their life. Fireflies have more than 2000 species and they come from the Coleopteran order of insects.
Some fireflies can change the colour of the light such as green, yellow, and also red. Fireflies spend most of their life in searching for a suitable breeding partner.
Where Do Fireflies Live?
Fireflies live in tropical regions continents. They live almost everywhere around the world except Antarctica. Fireflies are usually spotted in hot climatic conditions as they like warm and humid environments. Mostly, fireflies are found near ponds, lakes, or marsh areas.
Do Firefly Eggs Glow?
Fireflies when are in the larvae stage can produce glowing light. Some species of fireflies have the ability to produce light even being in eggs. These eggs produce light only when they feel a vibration or are touched.
What do Baby Fireflies Eat?
The larvae are born carnivorous and do not hesitate in eating newborn fireflies. Whereas, the baby fireflies who are identical to worms like to eat other smaller insects such as slugs or snails. Baby fireflies while hunting can eat much bigger insects to satisfy their hunger.
How Much Can a Firefly Eat?
The amount of food a firefly can eat in a day is not specific as the main objective of a firefly is looking for a mating partner. The larvae of fireflies can adapt according to food availability and can live without eating for few days.
Why do Fireflies Glow at Night?
Firefly’s special ability to produce light in their body at night is to fulfill the main purpose of their life which is to find a mating partner.
The male blinks his light in a specific pattern in the hope to attract the female firefly. The female will in return also glow in a certain pattern to signal the male firefly.
What are Pheromones?
Some other fireflies or diurnal fireflies don’t use light signals for mating communication instead use chemical signals known as pheromones.
The diurnal fireflies communicate with pheromones in the daytime instead of light signals for mating purposes. It is difficult to communicate with bioluminescent light in bright sunlight. The pheromones signal can attract a male firefly from almost a distance of 20m.
What do fireflies do during the daytime?
In the daytime, some fireflies spend their time eating and breeding. The sunlight makes it difficult for the diurnal fireflies to communicate with each other through bioluminescent light. These fireflies have adopted the use of pheromones for communicating for mating purposes instead of glowing signals.
Foods that are Dangerous to Fireflies?
Generally, fireflies stick to their daily diet and avoid eating food out of their diet. They can get indigestion or poisoned even eating other larvae or insects who have been near harmful chemicals such as pesticides.
Humans have in their goal of reducing crop damage by ants and bugs have increased the use of pesticides which along with other insects have also killed many fireflies.
Pesticides use is dangerous for fireflies with the decreasing number of fireflies in the world. Although, researchers are working to find the correlation between pesticide use and the decreasing population of firefly.
There are other factors such as habitat extinction and rapid human development are also contributing to the decreasing firefly population.